Selasa, 16 Juni 2015


E-learning is electronic learning, and typically this means using a computer to deliver part, or all of a course whether it's in a school, part of your mandatory business training or a full distance learning course.



( on Tuesday 21/04/2015, 9:47). The e-learning is learning supported by the implementation of technology services such as telephone, audio, vidiotape, satellite transmission or computer.
E-learning or electronic learning is now become a way to overcome the problem of education. E-learning can make learner more interest in something that they want to learn. E-learning can be applied for all levels of schooling from grade school to graduate degrees, and is enough to accommodate all learning styles. In the past, teaching and learning process is dominated by the role of teachers called "the era of teacher", while students only hear the explanation of teachers. Then, the process of learning and teaching is dominated by the role of teachers and books (the era of teacher and book) and the current teaching and learning process is dominated by the role of teachers, books and technology (the era of teacher, book and technology).
In other hand, e-teaching is has many problems. For instance, when it is applied in the marginal school with the lack of facility that support their learning process it will very difficult to access the media. It will be more difficult to applying this method in the learning process when the teacher has no ability to use or operate e-learning as the learning method.

Senin, 01 Juni 2015

Blended Learning

                            The majority of blended-learning programs resemble one of four models: Rotation, Flex, A La Carte, and Enriched Virtual. The Rotation model includes four sub-models: Station Rotation, Lab Rotation, Flipped Classroom, and Individual Rotation.

1. Rotation model — a course or subject in which students rotate on a fixed schedule or at the teacher’s discretion between learning modalities, at least one of which is online learning. Other modalities might include activities such as small-group or full-class instruction, group projects, individual tutoring, and pencil-and-paper assignments. The students learn mostly on the brick-and-mortar campus, except for any homework assignments.
a. Station Rotation — a course or subject in which students experience the Rotation model within a contained classroom or group of classrooms. The Station Rotation model differs from the Individual Rotation model because students rotate through all of the stations, not only those on their custom schedules.
b. Lab Rotation – a course or subject in which students rotate to a computer lab for the online-learning station.
c. Flipped Classroom – a course or subject in which students participate in online learning off-site in place of traditional homework and then attend the brick-and-mortar school for face-to-face, teacher-guided practice or projects. The primary delivery of content and instruction is online, which differentiates a Flipped Classroom from students who are merely doing homework practice online at night.
d. Individual Rotation – a course or subject in which each student has an individualized playlist and does not necessarily rotate to each available station or modality. An algorithm or teacher(s) sets individual student schedules.

2. Flex model — a course or subject in which online learning is the backbone of student learning, even if it directs students to offline activities at times. Students move on an individually customized, fluid schedule among learning modalities. The teacher of record is on-site, and students learn mostly on the brick-and-mortar campus, except for any homework assignments. The teacher of record or other adults provide face-to-face support on a flexible and adaptive as-needed basis through activities such as small-group instruction, group projects, and individual tutoring. Some implementations have substantial face-to-face support, whereas others have minimal support. For example, some Flex models may have face-to-face certified teachers who supplement the online learning on a daily basis, whereas others may provide little face-to-face enrichment. Still others may have different staffing combinations. These variations are useful modifiers to describe a particular Flex model.

3. A La Carte model — a course that a student takes entirely online to accompany other experiences that the student is having at a brick-and-mortar school or learning center. The teacher of record for the A La Carte course is the online teacher. Students may take the A La Carte course either on the brick-and-mortar campus or o-site. This differs from full-time online learning because it is not a whole-school experience. Students take some courses A La Carte and others face-to-face at a brick-and-mortar campus.

4. Enriched Virtual model — a course or subject in which students have required face-to-face learning sessions with their teacher of record and then are free to complete their remaining coursework remote from the face-to-face teacher. Online learning is the backbone of student learning when the students are located remotely. The same person generally serves as both the online and face-to-face teacher. Many Enriched Virtual programs began as full-time online schools and then developed blended programs to provide students with brick-and-mortar school experiences. The Enriched Virtual model differs from the Flipped Classroom because in Enriched Virtual programs, students seldom meet face-to-face with their teachers every weekday. It differs from a fully online course because face-to-face learning sessions are more than optional office hours or social events; they are required.

Ways technology supports the strategy

ÑResources are posted online via class website, LMS (Edmodo, Google Classroom, Schoology, etc). Resources   include articles, videos, interactive multimedia, virtual labs, and more
Ñ        Teachers can track which students are using materials at home
Ñ        online materials are available to students anytime, anywhere
Ñ        materials are accessible to parents and specialists to assist the students
Ñ        provides interactive activities, support materials and learning resources
Ñ        multimedia content helps address different learning styles

Example lesson plans and/or videos

·          Using videos from YouTube, Discovery Education. The teacher also answers questions in class and dives more deeply into the content.
·           assign virtual labs to do at home, and then discuss in class
·            projects - work on in class, and at home with more time for collaboration
·            students watch video/read chapter at home, do problems in class with teacher helping

The Pros and Cons in Blending Learning

·                Provides for individualized support for the students
·                 students can access material at anytime, anywhere, to review the material
·                  provides richer, more interactive learning experiences
·                  provides more time for collaboration with the students and teachers
·                  parents have access to what students are doing - better communication and support
·                 Studies show it increases student and teacher productivity, improves teaching and learning, and provides more and better data, and helps customize learning.
·                   more and more colleges and even workplaces are using this model
·                   gives students more time to learn - extends the learning beyond the end of the school day

·            Teachers will need time to create and/or select content.
·            Teachers will need training on using this method of instruction to make it effective
·            Students will need to be shown how to access, use the technology and what is expected of them
·            Students need to be able to do work outside of school hours
ü         Do they have access to technology at home?
ü         Do they have access to internet at home?
ü   Do they have other things that take up their time (job, etc.)
ü         Students need to be self-directed to work at home

ICT Tools, Roles and Application in Education and Language Learning

"ICT"is the Information and Communication Technologies. "ICT in Education" means "Teaching and Learning with ICT".

Educational ICT tools can be divided into 3 categories: Input source, Output source and Others.

Worldwide research has shown that ICT can lead to improved student learning and better teaching methods. A report made by the National Institute of Multimedia Education in Japan, proved that an  increase in student exposure to educational ICT through curriculum integration has a significant and positive impact on student achievement, especially in terms of "Knowledge Comprehension" · "Practical skill"  and "Presentation skill" in subject areas such as mathematics, science, and social study.
However, you can see that there are many education technology solutions provided in the world which may cause confusion among educators about how to choose the right ICT solution. Let's have a look at the advantages and disadvantages of ICT tools for education and discover what kind of education ICT solution is suitable for your school needs.

1.       Through ICT, images can easily be used in teaching and improving the retentive memory of students
2.       Through ICT, teachers can easily explain complex instructions and ensure students’ comprehension
3.       Through ICT, teachers are able to create interactive classes and make the lessons more enjoyable, which could improve student attendance and concentration

1.       Setting up the devices can be very troublesome
2.       Too expensive to afford
3.       Hard for teachers to use with a lack of experience in using ICT tools

If you can recall a time when using software in lessons meant spending a lunch break installing CD-ROMs in the computer suite, then the prospect of being a browser away from a huge selection of easy-to-use, exciting tools should put a smile on your face.
What's more, with ICT budgets being squeezed ever tighter, the fact that many quality on line teaching and learning tools are available for free will no doubt make that smile a little wider. Consider the potential for active, collaborative and personalised learning that these on line tools facilitate, and there's even more reason to be cheerful.
To the tech-savvy youngsters in our classrooms, the use of online applications is second nature. All we, as teachers and ICT coordinators, need do is introduce them to the on line apps that can help unlock their creativity and collaborative skills- and aid their study, revision and organisation.
The key is knowing which free online tools transcend the novelty factor and add real value. That's where this guide can help. Read on to discover ten online tools you can use straight away, without needing to raise a purchase order or barter for budget allocation.
1. Wallwisher
At first glance, online noticeboard tool Wallwisher may seem limited in application, but give it a go and you'll soon discover that it's more than a digital replacement for Post-it notes.
Wallwisher allows users to build virtual classroom Walls, in the sense you might be familiar with from Facebook, onto which 160-character messages, web links, images, videos and audio may be posted. Individuals can use it to mind-map, keep notes, or bookmark useful websites - but the real power of Wallwisher is in its potential for collaborative activities.
By sharing your wall URL with a class, whole year group, or even an entire school, anybody you choose is able to view and contribute to it. Wallwisher's security settings allow teachers to use what its designers have cheekily titled "The Idiot Filter" to approve entries before they're posted.

Ideas for use: Students can mind-map, build mood boards for creative projects, or create research walls on a given topic. Plenary discussions can be initiated by topic walls made collaboratively, or by teachers. For instance, a Key Stage 4 Media Studies teacher could create a wall ofYouTube film trailers to initiate a discussion on genre, classification or censorship.
How about having students post links to their own work, then using Wallwisher as a peer assessment tool? Teachers can also use the tool to gather feedback, anonymously if they so choose, on pupil confidence in specific curriculum areas.
Alternative: PrimaryWall is designed for primary schools, offering a user-friendly, text-only service with which to introduce Key Stage 1 and 2 pupils to group projects and collaborative storytelling.
2. Prezi
A presentation tool, Prezi provides users with a large canvas upon which to pin text slides, video clips and images. So far, so PowerPoint, you might say.
Quite the opposite, in fact. Prezi's selling point is its creation of a spatial narrative, meaning users can flow around presentation elements in the same non-linear way one might use an iPad: scrolling, enlarging, sliding and zooming in while always being able to return to the wider context. The trick is in learning to master these elements- not only in using Prezi to swoop between old linear PowerPoint-style slides.
Prezi is a sure-fire way to cure your classroom of PowerPoint fatigue. The finished product is leaps and bounds ahead of PowerPoint in terms of style, engaging the attention of pupils who groan with over-familiarity at seeing cheesy slide transitions on the whiteboard. it's one example of a free on line tool where novelty adds value.
One weakness is that Prezi doesn't yet support a master account to create student logins, so each pupil will need to apply for a separate EDU Enjoy account. lf your school allocates pupil email addresses (only educational addresses are accepted), this should be an easy hurdle to vault. If not, it still remains useful for teacher-led presentations.

Ideas for use: Whenever you or your pupils would use Microsoft PowerPoint, Prezi provides a more dynamic, engaging and visually attractive option. Innovative Science and Maths teachers of all key stages are already using Prezi to explain key concepts to pupils around the world.
Alternative: is a similar tool that's particularly useful for showcasing student portfolios as well as making presentations. Student projects are granted free educational licenses.

The information related to the context in the following sites:

Senin, 11 Mei 2015

Computer Assisted Language Learning (CALL)

A Definition of CALL
Computer Assisted Language Learning (CALL) is often perceived, somewhat narrowly, as an approach to language teaching and learning in which the computer is used as an aid to the presentation, reinforcement and assessment of material to be learned, usually including a substantial interactive element. Levy (1997:1) defines CALL more succinctly and more broadly as "the search for and study of applications of the computer in language teaching and learning". Levy's definition is in line with the view held by the majority of modern CALL practitioners. For a comprehensive overview of CALL see ICT4LT Module 1.4, Introduction to Computer Assisted Language Learning(CALL):

A brief history of CALL
CALL's origins can be traced back to the 1960s. Up until the late 1970s CALL projects were confined mainly to universities, where computer programs were developed on large mainframe computers. The PLATO project, initiated at the University of Illinois in 1960, is an important landmark in the early development of CALL (Marty 1981). In the late 1970s, the arrival of the personal computer (PC) brought computing within the range of a wider audience, resulting in a boom in the development of CALL programs and a flurry of publications. Early CALL favoured an approach that drew heavily on practices associated with programmed instruction. This was reflected in the term Computer Assisted Language Instruction (CALI), which originated in the USA and was in common use until the early 1980s, when CALL became the dominant term. There was initially a lack of imagination and skill on the part of programmers, a situation that was rectified to a considerable extent by the publication of an influential seminal work by Higgins & Johns (1984), which contained numerous examples of alternative approaches to CALL. Throughout the 1980s CALL widened its scope, embracing the communicative approach and a range of new technologies. CALL has now established itself as an important area of research in higher education: see the joint EUROCALL/CALICO/IALLT Research Policy Statement: /research/research_policy.htm. See also the History of CALL website:

Traditional CALL
Traditional CALL programs presented a stimulus to which the learner had to provide a response. In early CALL programs the stimulus was in the form of text presented on screen, and the only way in which the learner could respond was by entering an answer at the keyboard. Some programs were very imaginative in the way text was presented, making use of colour to highlight grammatical features (e.g. gender in French and case endings in German) and movement to illustrate points of syntax (e.g. position of adjectives in French and subordinate clause word order in German). Discrete error analysis and feedback were a common feature of traditional CALL, and the more sophisticated programs would attempt to analyse the learner's response, pinpoint errors, and branch to help and remedial activities. A typical example of this approach is the CLEF package for learners of French, which was developed in the late 1970s and early 1980s by a consortium of Canadian universities. A Windows version of CLEF has recently been released: Error analysis in CALL is, however, a matter of controversy. Practitioners who come into CALL via the disciplines of computational linguistics, e.g. Natural Language Processing (NLP) and Human Language Technologies (HLT), tend to be more optimistic about the potential of error analysis by computer than those who come into CALL via language teaching: see ICT4LT Module 3.5, Human Language Technologies The approach adopted by the authors of CLEF was to anticipate common errors and build in appropriate feedback. An alternative approach is the use of Artificial Intelligence (AI) techniques to parse the learner's response - so-called "intelligent CALL" (ICALL) - but there is a gulf between those who favour the use of AI to develop CALL programs (Matthews 1994) and, at the other extreme, those who perceive this approach as a threat to humanity (Last 1989:153).

Explorative CALL
More recent approaches to CALL have favoured a learner-centred, explorative approach rather than a teacher-centred, drill-based approach to CALL. The explorative approach is characterised by the use of concordance programs in the languages classroom - an approach described as Data-Driven Learning (DLL) by Tim Johns (Johns & King 1991). There are a number of concordance programs on the market, e.g. MonoConcConcordance,Wordsmith and SCP - all of which are described in ICT4LT Module 2.4, Using concordance programs in the modern foreign languages classroom See also Tribble & Jones (1990). The explorative approach is widely used today, including the use of Web concordancers and other Web-based CALL activities.

Multimedia CALL
Early personal computers were incapable of presenting authentic recordings of the human voice and easily recognizable images, but this limitation was overcome by combining a personal computer and a 12-inch videodisc player, which made it possible to combine sound, photographic-quality still images and video recordings in imaginative presentations - in essence the earliest manifestation of multimedia CALL. The result was the development ofinteractive videodiscs for language learners such as Montevidisco (Schneider & Bennion 1984), Expodisc (Davies 1991), and A la rencontre de Philippe (Fuerstenberg 1993), all of which were designed as simulations in which the learner played a key role.
The techniques learned in the 1980s by the developers of interactive videodiscs were adapted for the multimedia personal computers (MPCs), which incorporated CD-ROM drives and were in widespread use by the early 1990s. The MPC is now the standard form of personal computer. CD-ROMs were used in the 1980s initially to store large quantities of text and later to store sound, still images and video. By the mid-1990s a wide range of multimedia CD-ROMs for language learners was available, including imaginative simulations such as the Who is Oscar Lake? series: The quality of video recordings offered by CD-ROM technology, however, was slow to catch up with that offered by the earlier interactive videodiscs. The Digital Video Disc (DVD) offers much higher quality video recordings, e.g. the Eurotalk Advanced Level DVD-ROM series: A feature of many multimedia CALL programs is the role-play activity, in which the learner can record his/her own voice and play it back as part of a continuous dialogue with a native speaker. Other multimedia programs make use of Automatic Speech Recognition (ASR) software to diagnose learners' errors, e.g. Tell Me More Pro by Auralog: Most CALL programs under development today fall into the category of multimedia CALL. See ICT4LT Module 2.2, Introduction to multimedia CALL

Web-based CALL
In 1992 the World Wide Web was launched, reaching the general public in 1993. The Web offers enormous potential in language learning and teaching, but it has some way to go before it catches up with the interactivity and speed of access offered by CD-ROMs or DVDs, especially when accessing sound and video files. For this reason, Felix (2001:190) advises adopting hybrid approaches to CALL, integrating CD-ROMs and the Web and running audio conferencing and video conferencing in conjunction with Web activities. The Web Enhanced Language Learning (WELL) project, which has been funded under the FDTL programme of the HEFCE, aims to promote wider awareness and more effective use of the Web for teaching modern languages across higher education in the UK. The WELL website provides access to high-quality Web resources in a number of different languages, selected and described by subject experts, plus information and examples on how to use them for teaching and learning:

CALL authoring programs
CALL authoring programs offer a do-it-yourself approach to CALL. They were originally developed to enable programmers to simplify the entry of data provided by language teachers. Modern CALL authoring programs are designed to be used by language teachers who have no knowledge of computer programming. Typical examples are authoring packages that automatically generate a set of pre-set activities for the learner, e.g. Camsoft's Fun with Texts (Camsoft) and The Authoring Suite (Wida Software). Generic packages such as Macromedia's Director( are more sophisticated and enable the user to create a full-blown course, but they are probably too complex for most language teachers and are best suited to the template approach to authoring, as described in ICT4LT Module 3.2, CALL software design and implementation Web authoring packages are also available, e.g. Hot Potatoes software: See ICT4LT Module 2.5,Introduction to CALL authoring programs. See also Bickerton (1999) and Bickerton, Stenton & Temmermann (2001).

Professional associations for CALL
An increasing number of professional associations devoted to CALL are emerging worldwide. The older associations are grouped together under WorldCALL, which is in the process of establishing itself as an umbrella association of associations. WorldCALL held its first conference at the University of Melbourne in 1998, and the second WorldCALL conference will take place in Banff, Canada, 2003: The current professional associations represented in WorldCALL are:
EUROCALL: The leading European professional association for CALL. The ReCALL journal is published by Cambridge University Press on behalf of EUROCALL:
CERCLES: The European Confederation of Language Centres in Higher Education. CERCLES embraces a similar constituency to IALLT in North America.
CALICO: The leading North American professional association for CALL. Publishes the CALICO Journal:
IALLT: International Association for Language Learning Technology, based in North America: IALLT publishes the IALLT Journal of Language Learning Technologies and embraces a similar constituency to CERCLES in Europe.
CCALL/ACELAO: Currently in the process of establishing itself as a formal professional association in Canada. No website is available at present.
LLA: The Language Laboratory Association of Japan, also known as LET, which now embraces a wider range of language learning technologies:.
ATELL: The Australian Association for Technology Enhanced Language Learning consortium: ATELL used to publish On-CALL, which has now merged with CALL-EJ (Japan).

Suppliers of CALL materials
There are two general suppliers of CALL software in the UK:
Wida Software
There is a comprehensive database that list the range of software titles, producers and suppliers:
BECTA Educational Software Database:

The information related to the context in the following sites:

Regards, Tungga Pramudya Utama